Vocal percussion, commonly known as beatboxing, stands as a form of vocal artistry where one creates percussive sounds using their mouth, tongue, lips, and voice. It’s been part of music for ages but gained immense popularity recently due to its distinctive and adaptable nature. In this piece, we’ll take a deep dive into vocal percussion, touching on its definition, methods, significance in music, and the differences it holds compared to beatboxing.
Definition of Vocal Percussion
Vocal percussion involves crafting rhythmic sounds solely through the voice and body. It’s often used alongside musical instruments or as a standalone performance. Although the term “vocal percussion” was coined in the 1980s by jazz artist Bobby McFerrin, its practice dates back far earlier.
History of Vocal Percussion
The roots of vocal percussion can be traced to traditional African music, where singers imitated drum sounds using their vocals. This technique also found its place in Native American music and various indigenous cultures. In the early 20th century, it found its way into African-American music genres like blues, jazz, and gospel, enriching performances by artists like Cab Calloway and Ella Fitzgerald.
However, it wasn’t until the 1980s that vocal percussion gained widespread acknowledgement, all thanks to trailblazers such as Bobby McFerrin, Michael Winslow, and Doug E. Fresh. They revolutionized vocal percussion across different music genres, turning it into an art form of its own.
Evolution of Vocal Percussion Techniques
Vocal percussion has grown to encompass a wide array of sounds and techniques, including:
- Bass Drum: Creating a deep, thumping sound akin to a kick drum using lips and tongue, forming a foundational beat.
- Hi-Hat: Producing a crisp, high-pitched sound similar to a closed hi-hat cymbal using teeth and tongue, adding texture.
- Snare Drum: Utilizing the tongue and cheeks to replicate the sharp pop of a snare drum, offering accents and dynamics.
- Cymbals: Employing various techniques such as tongue-clicking or lip-based hissing to mimic crash, ride, and splash cymbal sounds.
- Scratching: Mimicking a DJ’s record scratch through finger movements against the cheek or lips, often found in hip-hop and electronic music.
Techniques of Vocal Percussion
Beyond foundational sounds, vocal percussion includes advanced techniques requiring skill and practice:
- Beatboxing: Involves intricate rhythms and sounds solely using the mouth, lips, and voice. It’s popular as both a solo act and accompaniment to instruments, with global competitions and workshops.
- Vocal Scratching: Resembling a DJ’s record scratch, demanding precise vocal cords and breath control, commonly used in hip-hop and electronic music.
- Throat Singing: Produces multiple pitches simultaneously using the throat and vocal cords, prominent in traditional Mongolian and Tuvan music.
- Polyphonic Overtone Singing: An advanced form creating two or more distinct pitches simultaneously, showcased in contemporary vocal percussion performances.
Role of Vocal Percussion in Music
Vocal percussion holds various roles in music:
- Rhythm and Groove: It provides consistent beats and grooves, enhancing jazz, blues, and gospel performances.
- Solo Performance: Artists display their skills by creating intricate rhythms and sounds, a common sight in beatboxing competitions.
- Sound Effects: In genres like hip-hop and electronic music, vocal percussion replicates traditional instrument sounds, enriching tracks.
What’s the Difference Between Vocal Percussion and Beatboxing?
Though often used interchangeably, vocal percussion and beatboxing differ:
- Techniques: Beatboxing tends to be more intricate and diverse compared to the somewhat traditional approach of vocal percussion.
- Styles: Vocal percussion follows a more structured style, while beatboxing allows greater experimentation and improvisation.
- Cultural Roots: Vocal percussion originates from African and Native American music while beatboxing finds its roots in hip-hop culture in urban U.S. settings.
Vocal percussion stands as a fascinating and versatile vocal form, evolving over centuries. Its fusion of techniques from diverse cultures enriches music with rhythm, texture, and depth. While similar to beatboxing in some aspects, vocal percussion holds unique techniques, styles, and cultural origins, marking its distinctive artistic presence. The next time you witness someone creating percussive sounds vocally appreciate the rich history and evolution embedded within vocal percussion.